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Applications of Unique Superconductor Quantum Phenomena in Electronics
Some of the unique macroscopic quantum properties of superconductivity will be reviewed, and their applications in electronics will be explained.
These include several well-established applications: detectors for radio astronomy used in most radio telescopes; the volt standard developed by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST); sharp superconducting filters for cellular base stations now deployed in hundreds of locations; instrumentation for ultra-weak magnetic fields using the superconducting quantum interference detector (SQUID).
Other highly developed applications are nearing acceptance, including SQUID magnetocardiography and magnetoencephalography, and high-resolution, high-frequency, analog-to-digital conversion.
The status and prospects of single-flux-quantum 50-100 GHz digital integrated circuits for signal processing and computation will be reviewed. Comments will be given on current research directions in superconductor electronics, including quantum computing.